GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications. It is based on digital cellular technology that is used to broadcast mobile voice and data services.

  1. In the early 1970s, the concept of GSM emerged from a cell-based mobile radio system at Bell Laboratories.
  2. GSM is the most widely accepted standard in telecommunications and is applied globally.
  3. Global System for Mobile Communications has a market share of more than 70 percent of the world’s digital cellular customers.
  4. GSM uses narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA) technology to transmit signals.
  5. GSM was developed using digital technology. It has the capability to carry data rates from 64 Kbps to 120 Mbps.
  6. Currently, GSM supports more than one billion mobile subscribers in more than 210 countries worldwide.
  7. GSM provides basic to advanced voice and data services including roaming service. Roaming Another GSM network has the ability to use your GSM phone number.
  8. The General System for Mobile Communications (GSM) standard originally described a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full-duplex voice telephony.
  9. Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) is a trademark owned by the GSM Association.
  10. The Global System for Mobile Communications originally described a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full-duplex voice telephony.

Features of GSM Module

  1. Improved spectrum efficiency
  2. International roaming
  3. Compatibility with integrated services digital network (ISDN)
  4. Support for new services.
  5. SIM phonebook management
  6. Fixed dialing number (FDN)
  7. Real-time clock with alarm management
  8. High-quality speech
  9. Uses encryption to make phone calls more secure
  10. Short message service (SMS)

GSM Architecture

A Mobile Station

It is a mobile phone that has a transceiver, display, and processor and is controlled by a SIM card that works on the network.

Base Station Subsystem

It acts as an interface between the network subsystem and the mobile station. Base Station consists of a base transceiver station that contains radio transceivers and handles protocols for communication with mobile. It also has a base station controller that controls the base transceiver station and acts as an interface between the mobile station and the mobile switching center.

Network Subsystem

It provides basic network connection to mobile stations. The core of the network subsystem is the mobile service switching center that provides access to various networks such as ISDN, PSTN, etc. It also includes the Home Location Register and the Visitor Location Register which provide GSM’s call routing and roaming capabilities. It also includes the Device Identification Register which maintains an account of all mobile types of devices in which each mobile is identified by its own IME number. IMEI stands for International Mobile Device Identification.

Advantages of GSM

  1. Since GSM service is received in more than 200 countries, it offers worldwide roaming for its customers worldwide.
  2. GSM is extremely safe because its equipment and features cannot be easily replicated.
  3. It has wide coverage all over the world.
  4. Efficient use of clear voice calls and spectrum.
  5. Advanced features like the short message, caller ID, call hold, call forwarding, etc.
  6. Compatible with Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and other telephone company services.

Disadvantages of GSM

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